: Differend: Phrases in Dispute (Theory and History of Literature) ( ): Jean-Francois Lyotard: Books. This original study examines Jean-François Lyotard’s philosophical concept of the differend and details its unexplored implications for literature. it provides a. Expressing the Inexpressible: Lyotard and the Differend Jacob M. Held Marquette University Department of Philosophy Coughlin Hall P.O. Box

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The law of concatenation states that these linkages must be made – that is, a phrase must be followed by another phrase – but that how to link is never determinate. Lyotard describes his existence up until the Second World War as a ‘poetic, introspective and solitary way of thinking and living. With vast amounts of knowledge stored digitally in databases, who decides what knowledge is worth storing what is legitimate knowledge and who has access to these databases?

The distinction between a wrong and a damage is based on the ability of those in volved to explain their respective situations and their respective abilities to receive restitution for the injustice done to them. And just as in capitalism, where it matters not what goods are in circulation as long as there is an accumulation of capital, desires are neutral as to their locale. Algeria In the fifteen years between his first two books of philosophy, Lyotard devoted all his writing efforts to the cause of revolutionary politics.

These phrase regimes have no outside criteria for comparison. At the same time, they often deny libidinal intensities lyotad, taking themselves to be primary and stable structures. Presses Universitaires de France, We should divferend Lyotard as taking this to be a good thing, since such a proliferation more accurately reflects his general ontological view of the world as composed of events which give rise to multiple interpretations, and which can never be accurately captured by a single narrative.

According to the “narrative” of science, however, only knowledge which is legitimated is legitimate – i. The original wrong signified by the differe nd is a wrong and not a damage. So given the fact that one must link onto the phrases idioms may provide better linking alternatives than those alre ady in existence. The master narratives of the Enlightenment do not seem particularly repressive here, and the concept of truth is not fluid or unstable-on the contrary!


Drawing on Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological analysis of the depth of the visual field, Lyotard posits an interruption of the supposedly flat system of language by this depth. Lyotard needs a methodological representation to apply to society in order to examine the status of knowledge in postmodern societies. A differend occurs when a discourse does not allow the linkages which would enable the presentation of a wrong. So what legitimates science now?

Phrases, on Lyotard’s account, may be extralinguistic, and can include signs, gestures, or anything that happens.

Le Différend – Jean-François Lyotard – Google Books

The case is a differend because the harm done to the victims cannot be presented in the standard of judgment upheld by Faurisson. Author Information Ashley Woodward Email: The principle of legitimation functioning in capitalism is efficiency or performativity [see The Postmodern Condition], and this principle attempts to be hegemonic. The nature of discourse precludes the communication of this injustice. A Gesture of Colour, ed. As the revolution began inLyotard joined Socialisme ou Barbarie Socialism or Barbarismwhich also included Claude Lefort — and Cornelius Castoriadis —important political thinkers in their own right.

Jean-Francois Lyotard, Differend: Phrases in Dispute – PhilPapers

In the terms of Freudian psychoanalysis, they are the “primary processes” of the libido, the forces that exist in the body on a more basic level than the “secondary processes” of the conscious mind. No doubt, Lyotard was not the only one to see these changes coming, but his prescience is notable nonetheless. Lyotard develops the philosophy of language that underlies his work on paganism and postmodernism most fully in The Differend: We can have an idea of such things, but we cannot match up that idea with a direct sensory intuition since sublime objects surpass our sensory abilities.

This narrative differnd usually taken the form of a heroic epic of some kind, with the scientist as a “hero of knowledge” who discovers scientific truths.


That is, they are of radically different types and cannot be meaningfully compared through an initial presentation of the phrase event of which they are situations. Lyotard addr esses both of these possibilities. Lyotard analyses this experience in terms of Kant’s idea of the sublime, which is itself an experience of the limits of reason. Lyotard and the Differend. Hence both progressive and conservative political views are found flailing in diagnosing the problems of the political, especially when facing the devaluation of all values in consumer culture.

Events always exceed interpretation; there lyotarx always something “left over” that an interpretation does not account for. Phrasing the differend seems to imme diately create another violence, or injustice, namely the silencing of the origi nal wrong and substitution in its place something that does not express the orig inal wrong.

Differend: Phrases in Dispute

The context, he argues, is the linguistic turn in philosophy, and his avowed method is to engage political disputes on the model of linguistic affairs Differendxiii. Lyotard gives us a few examples of types of utterances. Callinicos, Alex,Against Postmodernism: What is at stake in the genre of comedy, for example, is to be humorous, to make people laugh.

This surmise is no longer hyperbolic: As was mentioned above, Lyotard expresses the nature of this situation as the nece ssity of linking. The discussion of signs recalls Lyotard’s analysis of the nihilism of semiotics in Libidinal Economywhere he refers to Augustine, and what is perhaps the main theme of this work – Augustine’s writing as a study in the phenomenology of time — is referred to in the earlier paper “The Sublime and the Avant-Garde.

Jean-François Lyotard (1924—1998)

Sheilds, Rob and Heidi Bickis eds. Thus one follows orders in the army, prays in church, questions in philosophy, etc. Lyotard luotard with an opposition between discourserelated to structuralism and written text, and figure a visual imagerelated to phenomenology and seeing.