Ibn Miskawayh, Ahmad ibn Muhammad (c). Like so many of his contemporaries in the fourth and fifth centuries ah (tenth and eleventh centuries ad). Like so many of his contemporaries in the fourth and fifth centuries AH (tenth and eleventh centuries ad) Ibn Miskawayh was eclectic in philosophy, basing his. Ahmad Ibn Muhammad (Ibn) Miskawayh (ca//). A contemporary of Ibn Sina and al-Biruni, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Miskawayh was born in.

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At its best, however, his philosophy is highly analytical and maintains a high degree of coherence and consistency.

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam Covers the religious, political, and social spheres of global Islam in the modern world.

For him the psychological aspect is the most important, so he began with mentioning a number of abstract methods; to start with, Miskawayh gives a number of positive aspects, i. This also places him nearer the thought of the new culture, regarding its elevation of miekawayh activity and leaving work to the lower orders in society, to servants and slaves.

Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis, https: Whoever approaches God, and God brings him close, becomes in this way supremely happy, with a happiness that cannot be surpassed [37]. This is very different from the normal kind of friendship, in which people form relationships with kiskawayh other because they want to get something out of it.

Ibn Miskawayh, Ahmad ibn Muhammad (c.940–1030)

Hence it can be said that Miskawayh’s book prepares the way for anyone who examines its contents to reach supreme happiness. The idea of a still higher realm of being at which the soul comes into contact with divine reality is a perfectly feasible addition to the account he gives of social and intellectual life.

Love of gold and silver is a disaster, and the boy must be advised to avoid them and not to use them in any shape or form [46]. This being so, it is easy to recognize evil character among young men and boys and to work to set them free from it, and habituate them to virtuous morals since it is possible for them to receive these swiftly [43].

Muhammad is traditionally said to have…. This is not the statement of Darwin. This is what he stresses very clearly in the introduction to his book, stating: This has to be repeated in the boy’s ears many times, so that he may be brought up, or grow up, in this way. He differed from them in his concern for ethics more than most other studies of traditional philosophy at that time.


The Muslim thinkers state that ape then evolved into a lower kind of a barbarian man. To realize this, he cites a number of conditions, some internal and some external.

I was then serving as bureau chief, and the caller was my boss, the Times foreign editor. He later worked as a secretary and librarian for a sequence of viziers, including ‘Adud al-Dawla.

Like so many of his contemporaries in the fourth and fifth centuries ah tenth and eleventh centuries ad Ibn Miskawayh was eclectic in philosophy, basing his approach upon the rich variety of Greek philosophy that had been translated into Arabic. As a Neoplatonisthis influence on Islamic philosophy is primarily in the area of ethics.

Ibn Miskawayh seems on the whole to accord greater respect to Greek rather than specifically Islamic authorities. Miskawayh may have been a Zoroastrian convert to Islambut it seems more likely that it was one of his ancestors who converted.

Catalog Record: Tahdhīb al-akhlāq li-Ibn Miskawayh | Hathi Trust Digital Library

For love of others, and affection towards them, can play a part in the progress and upward movement of all people; that is because these are a sphere for fulfilling the different virtues. Click here for the original version in PDF format. Miskawayh advises giving the boy the opportunity to play at certain times, although this play must be of a good kind, to let him relax from the weariness of learning and observing etiquette; however, there should ibm nothing in this play to cause the boy pain or distress [47].

Further clarification can be found in the work of an Orientalist M. HistoryTheologymedicineethics and philosophy. Ibn Miskawayh was one of the first to clearly describe a version of the idea of evolution. Philosophers by century CE.

If you belong to such an institution, please log in or find out more about how to order. This is because, miskawayy argues, that unity is equivalent to perfection, while multiplicity is equivalent to a meaningless plurality of physical objects.

So his soul is ready for training, fit to be taken care of, and must not be neglected.

So it is useful to extract from this discussion some detail on: Maybe one of the most important characteristics of Miskawayh also, emphasizing his great admiration for the Iibn philosophy which had reached imskawayh, is that he did not aim for a reconciliation between religion and philosophy, as other previous Muslim philosophers had done. Miskawayh’s experience in this field, with his Greek culture, is his guide and the source of his ideas. If the person did not live in this human milieu, these virtues would not be apparent, and the human being would become just like people frozen or dead.


Humanity in general, Miskawayh considers, is the noblest of all existing beings on the earth which we inhabit [38]. Ya’qub Miskawayh is a brilliant intellectual and philosopher of 10th-century Buwayhid Baghdad. Man becomes a saint, a prophet. The Koran Interpreted, a translation by A. Their enemies will be few, many will praise them and seek their friendship, especially the virtuous [32].

About What’s New Log in. The following text was originally published as: The boy must not drink during the meal, and must beware of wine and any kinds ,iskawayh intoxicating drinks, for these are harmful to both body and soul. The importance of transactions with people, as Miskawayh says, refers to the fact that transactions lead to the appearance of virtues which only do so in company and mismawayh dealings and interaction with others, such as integrity, courage, and generosity.

Khalafmiskawah al-mufassila li-ahwal al-muta’allimin wa-l-mu’allimin Detailed epistle on the conditions of learners and teachersboth published in: His effect on Islamic philosophy is mainly concerned with ethical issues. Although the responsibility of refining and purifying the soul is an individual one, where every human being is kiskawayh for himself in the first place, and then to complete the virtues miskawqyh can help others in following along ib way – yet Miskawayh did not speak of acts of worship obligatory for mankind in Islam, for these are responsibilities which fall on the shoulders of the adult person.

Besides all this, the basic conditions for reaching happiness are psychological conditions and factors; this is because training the soul, cleansing it, teaching it, making it profit from general and particular experiences, are centred on the human’s will and his ability to raise his inclinations, so as to attain the degree of happiness appropriate for him.

For he distinguishes between reason and faith, or between philosophy and religion, since the supreme happiness is a human happiness, one which is neither imposed on man nor withheld from him by anything jbn the scope of his will, and issuing from an intellect greater and stronger than his [19]. Persian philosopher and historian, influenced by Aristotle.