The Bush- Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) is a standardised, quantifiable examination of catatonia designed to screen and diagnose. Page 1. Page 2. The aim of the present study was to examine the suitability and accuracy of using the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) in chronic schizophrenia.

Author: Aralrajas Duzil
Country: Egypt
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Photos
Published (Last): 25 March 2007
Pages: 283
PDF File Size: 10.24 Mb
ePub File Size: 15.33 Mb
ISBN: 652-3-74707-412-1
Downloads: 61067
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Voodoogal

In the s, the tie was questioned when catatonia was recognized among those with mood disorders.

High-frequency rTMS was considered as a possible alternative, given the potential adverse effects of chronic maintenance ECT in crancis patient with comorbid epilepsy. Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome which has historically been associated with schizophrenia.

Introduction Catatonia has been identified in a variety of psychiatric, medical and neurological disorders, and drug-induced states.

Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) – PsychTools

No patient had catatonia during the follow-up. Electroconvulsive therapy in the intensive care unit for the treatment of catatonia: The resurgence of catatonia following tapering of lorazepam is a common clinical phenomenon.

The 3 catatonia groups did not differ significantly in their benzodiazepines responses: The most common underlying psychiatric diagnosis was schizophrenia.

For the graduation of the secretion severity level, a secretion scale was provided by Murray et al. From Psychopathology to Neurobiology. Stringent treatment studies on catatonia are warranted. American Psychiatric Press, Inc; Cambridge University Press; Catatonia Is not Schizophrenia: Major depressive disorder was the main diagnosis in six patients 4. The progression of symptoms in each NIC episode was reviewed.

Review of the literature and three case reports. And finally, psychiatric educators rarely include catatonic signs as an important component of their curriculum. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding. Having a separate category for catatonia due to the mood disorders in the current diagnostic guidelines 10 th edition of the International Classification of Diseases and the 4 th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual will help in better diagnosis of catatonia.

This does not mean that catatonic symptoms do not occur in other illnesses and in particular in organic psychoses. Ongoing studies now recognize catatonia among patients labeled as suffering from the Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome, anti-NMDAR encephalitis, obsessive-compulsive disease, and various mutisms. Perhaps the European catatonia rating scales could provide improved detection, recognition, and measurement of treatment response and provide options for research into catatonia.


For the treatment of catatonia with autistic spectrum disorders, the efficacy of benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy has been established. The documented decline in the proportion of patients with schizophrenia diagnosed as catatonic is congruent with the fact that most studies highlight the strong association between catatonia and mood disorders.

The Detection and Measurement of Catatonia

But the lack of diagnostic clarity and operationalization has hampered research on catatonia for a long time. Case 1 is a year-old Caucasian who probably had been having intermittent episodes of undiagnosed catatonia withdrawal for many years.

Schizophrenia Research, Presentation and frequency of catatonia in new admission to two acute psychiatric admission units in India and Wales. Reviewing the historical descriptions and explanations of catatonic behaviours by clinicians from its delineation in the 19th century to the present. Third, while the BFCRS can be used to measure treatment response we have found that items 17 through 23 may still be present even after patients have improved clinically.

Has Kahlbaum syndrome disappeared or is it underdiagnosed?

Childhood onset schizophrenia COS and catatonia C are rare and severe psychiatric disorders. Catatoniaoriginally described by Karl Kahlbaum inmay be regarded as a set of clinical features found in a subtype of schizophrenia, but the syndrome may also stem from organic causes including vascular parkinsonism, brain masses, globus pallidus lesions, metabolic cqtatonia, and pharmacologic agents, especially first generation antipsychotics.

Login using

Catatonic symptoms were rated using the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale at the baseline and daily thereafter. Effective treatment of catatonia by combination of benzodiazepine and electroconvulsive therapy.

Catatonia has been defined as a cluster of signs and occurs secondary to or as a subgroup of schizophrenia, mood disorders or organic syndrome. Not only patients with schizophrenia, but also patients with general medical disease, mood disorder, and substance-related disorder exhibit catatonia. In hysteria, the main shift has been from motor symptoms to sensory complaints such as chronic fatigue; in catatoniathe major change has been the virtual disappearance of negativistic or oppositional behaviour.


Thirty patients were identified. Catatonia is a movement disorder as well as a neuropsychiatric syndrome; thus, a catatonia rating scale is akin to a movement disorder examination. Out of publications, almost half 62 included no quantitative measures of motor function.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Early recognition and treatment is vital for the quality of life of these patients, and may in some cases be life-saving. Four DS adolescents who experienced regression are reported.

In the study of Pommepuy and Januel, including catatonic patients, there was an average of This new scale includes ten categories of symptoms, it is sensitive to changes in both the adrenergic and metabolic components of hyperthyroidism, and it is useful in the clinical assessment and management of patients with thyrotoxicosis. Cases in which the diagnosis were schizophrenia or mood disorder were then noted.

The NIC episodes presented predominantly in the stuporous form associated with parkinsonism. By the turn of the century, however, catatonia was incorporated as a type within a conjured syndrome of schizophrenia. Catatonia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome involving motor signs in association with disorders of mood, behavior, or thought. The results indicated that improvement can be made in the precision of teacher ratings that may be reflected in improved reliability and validity.

This is compatible with the recommendations of DSM Of episodes of acute catatonia prospectively identified, 18 were diagnosed with NIC. SMA resting-state hyperperfusion is a marker of current catatonia in schizophrenia. The characterisation and the differentiation of psychomotor symptom clusters can contribute to a more accurate diagnosis and a better understanding of underlying neurobiological processes.