The handbook of memory disorders / edited by Alan D. Baddeley, Michael D. Kopelman and. Barbara A. Wilson. Included are cortices in the temporal pole (Brodmann area 38), the in- ferotemporal region Prime Minister. Cueing helped. Alliance is pleased to present this Minister’s Manual for your use as you carry out your ministerial duties. It is our prayer that God will use this manual to. Musicians have special perceptuomotor skills, such as manual dexterity, . and the middle temporal gyri [Brodmann’s areas (BA) 21 and 22], known as the . Research Grant (H) from the Ministry of Health and Welfare.

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The present study used functional magnetic resonance to examine the cerebral activity pattern associated with musical perception in musicians and non-musicians. Musicians showed left dominant secondary auditory areas in the temporal cortex and the left posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a passive music listening task, whereas non-musicians demonstrated right dominant secondary auditory areas during the same task.

A significant difference in the degree of activation between minisfer and non-musicians was noted in the bilateral brodmmanns temporale and the left posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The degree of activation of the left planum temporale correlated well with the age at which the person had begun musical training.

Furthermore, the degree of activation in the left posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the left planum temporale correlated significantly with absolute pitch ability. The results indicated distinct neural activity in the auditory association areas and the prefrontal cortex of trained musicians. We suggest that such activity is associated with absolute pitch ability and the use-dependent mniister reorganization produced by the early commencement of long-term training.

Musicians have special perceptuomotor skills, such as manual dexterity, sight-reading ability, ability to improvise and absolute pitch AP processing. Several studies have indicated that daily musical training, as used by professional musicians to increase and maintain their skill, can induce functional reorganization of the cerebral cortex Elbert et al. For example, magnetic source imaging studies have revealed increased cortical representation of the somatosensory areas of the left-hand fingers in bfodmanns players and auditory areas in skilled musicians Elbert et al.

These data also indicated that the degree of use-dependent functional reorganization could depend on the age at which musical training began. The difference in musical perception between musicians and non-musicians has been examined by mainly psychological and neurophysiological studies Bever and Chiarello, ; Johnson, ; Mazzucchi et al.

Using a dichotic listening task involving violin melodies, Johnson reported that musicians demonstrated right ear superiority left cerebral hemispheric dominancewhile non-musicians showed a left ear advantage right cerebral mnaual dominance.

Although some reports have indicated that increasing musical sophistication causes a shift of musical processing from the right hemisphere to the left Bever bodmanns Chiarello, ; Johnson, ; Mazzucchi et al. On the other hand, anatomical studies using magnetic resonance imaging MRI have indicated that AP may be brodmanna with an anatomical difference in the left planum temporale PTa posterior part of the auditory cortex situated in the temporal lobe; however, its maual significance remains to be clarified Schlaug et al.

Functional Anatomy of Musical Perception in Musicians | Cerebral Cortex | Oxford Academic

Here we present data from functional MRI fMRI that indicates that the cerebral activity pattern ministre trained musicians is different from that of controls. Brodmanms groups, comprising right-handed subjects Edinburgh handedness questionnaire without history of neurological and psychiatric disorders and with normal audiological status, participated in the present study. Before the experiment we interviewed musicians to collect information about the number of hours of practice, sight-reading ability, AP ability, the principal instrument and other instruments played, and the age at which musical training began.

Absolute pitch ability was verified with an objective pitch identification test and a difficult solfeggio test consisting of atonal melodies and tension codes. The principal instruments of musicians were percussion 11 subjects and piano three subjects.

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All of them began musical training with the piano. Ten mankal of 12 musicians began their musical practice before 10 years old mean age 6. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects in accord with the ethical guidelines laid down by the local ethical committee. As far as we know, this piece have been never played vocally and all recorded versions were played by keyboard instruments, such as the piano or cembalo. The stimulus was presented by an air-conducting headphone.


Subjects were asked to just passively listen to music. They were also asked not to accompany or sing with the listened music. We presented subjects with a post hoc questionnaire after fMRI measurements.

The questionnaire was consisted of the following questions:. The questionnaire revealed that 14 out of 17 musicians and all control subjects had never heard this particular piece. Two pianists and one composer played it, so we therefore eliminated these three musicians from the subjects for this study. Cerebral activation was measured with fMRI using blood oxygen level- dependent contrast Ogawa et al. Head motion was minimized by placing tight but comfortable foam padding around the subject’s head.

The first five volumes of each fMRI scan were discarded because of the non-steady condition of brovmanns, and the remaining 70 volumes were used for the analysis. Scans were realigned and spatially normalized to the standard stereotactic space of Talairach using an EPI template.

The parameter for affine and quadratic transformation to the EPI template that was already fitted for Talairach space was estimated by least-squares means. After specifying the appropriate design matrix, delayed box-car function as a reference waveform, the condition, slow hemodynamic fluctuation unrelated to the task, and subject effects were estimated according to the general linear model and temporal smoothness into account.

Global normalization was performed using proportional scaling. To test hypotheses about regionally specific condition effects, the estimates were compared by means of linear contrasts of each rest and task period. Previous studies have indicated that the right superior temporal gyrus STG must be specialized for processing of music perception Mazziotta et al.

Therefore, we determine lateralization of STG activation in each subject. Furthermore, we applied a random effect model to generalize the inference drawn from multi-subject fMRI data Friston et brodmnns. Images of the estimated activation parameter ai were written out as an brodmann. None of the musicians employed as subjects could remember the precise title of the musical stimulus and had never played it; however, most musicians answered that it may have been composed by Bach or Handel.

They also had not heard the stimulus before scanning. None of the control subjects had heard the musical stimulus before scanning. However, they recognized that it may be some kind of baroque music.

All musicians answered that they had just listened to the music and had not tred to analyze or memorize it. None of them tried to imagine the score of the presented music or to accompany it. The control subjects demonstrated right dominant brodmanna cortical activation BA21 and BA22 during passive monister listening Fig. Contrary to the control group, musicians showed left dominant temporal cortical activation BA22, 21 during the same task Fig. However, no correlation between the duration of musical training and the degree of cerebral activation was seen in any region.

Whether music is a right or left hemispheric function over-simplifies its neuroscience. Our finding of right dominant activation in the secondary auditory areas in the control group also indicates right hemispheric predominance for musical perception in musically naive imnister.

Contrary to the control group, brodmanne showed left dominant temporal cortical activation BA22, 21 during musical perception. A difference in familiarity with the musical stimulus between musicians and non-musicians was a possible brodmwnns factor in this study; however, a post hoc questionnaire revealed that there was no such difference. They reported that listening to a musical piece activated the right STG BA22which was not detected in a scale-listening task. The results suggested right hemispheric predominance for melody perception in musicians.

Unlike the present study, they focused mainly broodmanns musical performance rather than perception. They did not mention the AP ability of their subjects. We assume that the discrepancy between Sergent et al. The activation patterns in the musicians can be characterized as follows: The results should be seen in the following contexts.

First, neuroimaging studies have revealed that the posterior temporal area, including the PT, is involved in various aspects brosmanns pitch processing Mazziotta et al. Fourthly, behavioral studies broxmanns demonstrated a difference in lateralization of musical processing between musicians and non-musicians, with more left-lateralized representation in musicians Bever and Chiarello, ; Mazzucchi et al.

Finally, magnetic source imaging studies have revealed increased cortical representation of the somatosensory and auditory areas in skilled musicians Elbert et al. Therefore, our results may suggest that increasing musical sophistication should cause a shift of musical processing, or at least music perception, from the right to the left hemisphere and from the anterior portion of the superior temporal region to the posterior.

We suggest that activations in the Mxnual and left DLPFC should be associated with AP processing and use-dependent functional reorganization caused by early engagement of musical training. Before the fMRI experiment, musicians were interviewed to determine the age at which their musical training had begun and tested AP ability by using a difficult solfeggio test.


There was a significant negative linear correlation between the age of inception of musical training and the degree of activation in the left PT BA The data suggest that the degree of the use-dependent functional reorganization could depend on the age at which musical training began. This finding is similar to those reported in previous studies, which examined somatosensory representation of fingering digits in string players and cortical representation for piano tones in musicians Elbert et al.

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Although it is possible that such a functional reorganization could be dependent on the duration of training, we could not find any correlation between the duration of training and the degree of cerebral activation. In addition to the results of previous studies Elbert et al.

The left dominant PT activation for music perception that we observed in musicians corresponds to the result of an earlier MR study: Our data therefore associate the use-dependent functional property with cortical architectonics and raise the possibility that musical experience during childhood may influence structural development of PT.

One possible alternative interpretation of the results here is that the different activation pattern only reflects a different strategy of musical perception that calls on the left hemispheric function Mazziotta et al.

In that study, greater activation of the right side than of the left auditory areas during the same task was found when subjects did not use a specific strategy using visual imagery Mazziotta et al. However, we asked our musicians to listen to the music passively. Indeed, the post hoc questionnaire revealed that they did not employ any specific analytic approach, especially visual imagery, during the fMRI measurements.

Although they did not use any specific strategy consciously, it is still possible that the musicians have developed a different way of listening to music, which is inherently more analytical. There is a possibility that musical training not only changes the regions involved in musical perception, but may also change how the music is perceived.

The left PT is known as Wernicke’s area, which is related to language comprehension. The human PT is a roughly triangular region of the superior temporal plane located posterior to the primary auditory field.

It is, on average, larger in the left hemisphere, suggesting that it may play a specialized role in language and language lateralization Steinmetz et al. Why is the left PT involved in music perception in trained musicians? Do they employ a common strategy in music perception and language comprehension? We consider that the stronger PT activation in musicians than in controls could be related to AP processing.

Because note labeling is obligatory for AP processors even when passively listening, these activations should represent part of the substrate for AP ability Marin and Perry, Taken together, AP ability may arise from a qualitatively different neural process within the left PT. Functional neuroimaging studies of the human prefrontal cortex have revealed that it is associated with a broad range of different cognitive demands, such as perception, response selection, working memory and problem solving Duncan and Owen, The posterior DLPFC has been shown to be important for conditional-associative learning of sensory stimuli Petrides, Therefore, AP may be characterized as the ability to retrieve an association between a stimulus attribute the pitch of sound and a verbal label of the note name, such as A, D-flat, etc.

We assume that AP ability may result from at least two neural mechanisms.

One such possible mechanism is a form of conditional-associative learning verbal—tonal associationwhich results from an interaction between computations in the PT and the left DLPFC. Another is the different initial stage of perceptual analysis processed in the left PT. In conclusion, there is a distinct cerebral activity pattern in the auditory association areas and prefrontal cortex of trained musicians.

Such activity could be associated with Brormanns ability and the use-dependent functional reorganization produced manul longterm training. Brain surface projection of activated areas during passive music listening in control subjects and musicians.